Ground flaxseed vs oil

Ground flaxseed vs oil research throws up some new facts about cholesterol.

It’s now beyond dispute that flaxseed has a profound effect on raised cholesterol – as effective as statins – but which is more effective? Freshly ground flaxseed or flaxseed oil?

Flaxseeds contain two (and no doubt many more that remain unresearched) vital ingredients. It’s the richest plant source of omega 3 (there are three omega-3 fatty acids: here we are talking about ALA, or alpha linolenic acid), but also a group of plant compounds called lignans ... … buth have an effect on inflammation in blood vessels, muscles and joints, but what effect do they have on the cholesterol profile?


 Flax seed field in flower. Photo by Jason Hawkes.



Flaxseed oil contains no lignans, and even "lignan enriched" oil has at most two percent lignans.



And what about the cost of freshly ground flaxseeds vs flaxseed oil in capsules?



1. University of Bucharest – department of medicine and pharmacology.


Researchers took a group of adults with raised total cholesterol (> 240 mg/dl) and divided them into three groups:


  1. Diet group. Received only a low fat diet.
  2. Statin group. Received the same low fat diet + statins.
  3. Ground flax seed group. The same low fat diet + 20g (one-and-a third-tablespoon) ground flax seeds each day. 

After two months, the researchers found:

  • The flaxseed supplementation resulted in a 17% lower total cholesterol.
  • It lowered the LDL cholesterol by 4%.
  • It raised the healthy HDL cholesterol by 26%.

Perhaps more important: they reported there was "no significant difference" between the statin and the flax seed groups.

(Rev Med Chir Soc 2005 109(3))




2. Emory University (Force trial)

Researchers took a group of obese (BMI 37 average), divided them into two groups both of whom also went on the American Heart Association Step one diet:

  1. 5.2 g of flax seed oil.
  2. 5.2 g of olive oil (Oleomed)

After six months the researchers tested both the cholesterol profiles, and the particle size of the cholesterol*.

Results:

  • The flaxseed oil group had a significant increase in total cholesterol. There was no change in the olive oil group. 
  • The LDL, HDL, TG did not change, nor differed from one group to the other.
  • Both the LDL and HDL particles increased in size in the flax seed oil group.

* Particles size. The larger LDL particles are less damaging, and the larger HDL particles are more beneficial.

Discussion: The known protection of flax seed does not come from a change in the cholesterol profile from consuming flaxseed oil. Researchers speculate that the it is the lignans in flaxseed that is responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect, not from the omega 3 fatty acid, ALA.

It's also known that ALA is converted in the body to the other two omega 3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA. They speculate that the cardiac benefit is from these other two fatty acids, mostly obtained from marine based sources.





3. University of Pennsylvania trial (J Am Coll Nutr 2008 27(1))

Raw freshly-ground flaxseed vs flaxseed in baked products

62 persons with raised LDL were divided into two groups. Both groups followed a low fat, low cholesterol diet. Both groups ate two baked muffins a day, each containing either

  • 20g of ground flax seed, or
  • 20g of wheat bran.

(40g of ground flaxseed is about two-and-a-half tablespoons.)

Conclusions:

  1. Plasma omega-6 was reduced, and omega-3 increased, resulting in a healthy lowering of the omega 6/3 ratio.
  2. At five weeks there was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL in the ground flaxseed group, but...
  3. At ten weeks the two groups were identical. Researchers suspected that there was due to "reduced adherence" by the  subjects, or biological adaptation.
  4. Oddly, in men there was a decrease in the healthy HDL fraction, but not in women.
  5. There was no loss of body weight in either group.
  6. Insulin sensitivity significantly improved in the flax seed group.
  7. Those in the flaxseed group with hypertension had an anti-inflammatory effect as measured by C reactive protein, whereas there was an increase in CRP in the wheat bran group. 




My overall conclusions @ Ground flaxseed vs oil

  • 20 grams of freshly ground flaxseed is as effective as taking statins, lowering total cholesterol, lowering the "bad" LDL fraction, and raising the "good" HDL fraction.
  • The overall research suggests that flaxseed oil in capsules is beneficial but the mechanism is unknown and, disturbingly, actually raises total cholesterol.
  • It would appear that the lignans in flaxseed are the main benefactors in flaxseed.
  • Freshly ground flaxseed, containing both ALA omega 3 and lignans is far more beneficial than flax seed oil. 
  • Flaxseed is as beneficial as taking statins, with none of the nasty side effects.
  • The benefit of ground flaxseed may be lost in baking.
  • Clearly the jury is noty yet out on the subject of the effect of ground flaxseed vs oil on cholesterol levels.


Cost of ground flaxseed vs oil

A 2kg packet of whole flaxseed costs about $2. In 20g doses perday (one and a third tablespoons, used in the research above), this would last 100 days. Or two cents per day.

In 1g capsules, one manufacturer sells 100 capsules for $12.99 + P&P. Nuff said! 5 capsules a day... expensive, and a tenth of the value.

I don't recommend flaxseed oil in bottles at all. The omega-3, being a powerful anti-oxidising agent, is very rapidly oxidised. The bottle must be finished within two weeks (and that's probably too long) of opening, even if refrigerated. After that it forms toxic, awful tasting, break down products.

Flax seed nutrition information

For more information on the value of flaxseeds, read our flax seed nutrition information page at Chiropractic Help ...


Flaxseed grinder @ ground flaxseed vs oil

An inexpensive coffee grinder (around $20) works perfectly well for grinding flaxseed and sesame seed, the other important source of lignans.

The grinder takes about 4 TBSP, enough for three days, refrigerate, and it it takes about 10s to grind the seed.



Sprinkle the freshly ground flax seed on your oats based muesli, the king of cholesterol lowering foods. Quaker oats recipes ... add some fresh fruit that's in season, like strawberries, perhaps a few raisins and three freshly cracked pecan nuts or walnuts. Pecans nutrition ...



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